Blackbeard’s Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project
⚓ Blackbeard’s 300 year old shipwreck documented in 20 years of video. Nautilus Productions is the exclusive owner and licensor of footage from Blackbeard the Pirate’s flagship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge (QAR).
Since the 1996 discovery of the wreck by Intersal Inc. The Nautilus Productions staff has been the official video crew for the study and recovery of the infamous pirate Blackbeard’s ship the Queen Anne’s Revenge (La Concorde). Project videographer, Rick Allen, and our staff has worked with the North Carolina Underwater Archaeology Branch documenting this incredible underwater find. Nautilus Productions’ duties have included the video documentation of site activities above and below the water as well as documenting the archaeological survey, provenience and recovery of artifacts from the shipwreck. This archive is the digital record of the project. Our Queen Anne’s Revenge stock footage and images have been licensed worldwide in books, magazines, news broadcasts and in over a dozen documentaries airing on ABC, BBC, CBS, CNN, the History Channel, Discovery, National Geographic, NBC, PBS, the Smithsonian Channel, the Travel Channel, ZDF and more. Nautilus Productions’ owner and project videographer, Rick Allen, has also been featured on WUNC Radio & NPR’s “The Story” – Blackbeard’s Shipwreck And The Hook, BBC Radio’s Blackbeard and in numerous news stories and magazine articles.
Nautilus Productions owns and maintains the video library containing nearly two decades and over 80 hours of stock footage from the wreck site and the project. For timecode burns, screeners, licensing info and/or rates contact Nautilus Productions. Footage and images are registered under multiple US copyrights.
- Scroll down for Blackbeard’s History & Timeline
The Queen Anne’s Revenge was a frigate, most famously used as a flagship by the infamous pirate Blackbeard, aka Edward Thatch (Teach). She was launched by the Royal Navy in 1710, and captured by France in 1711. She was used as a slave ship by the French, and was later captured by Blackbeard and his pirate crew in 1717. Blackbeard captained the Queen Anne’s Revenge for less than a year while capturing numerous prizes along the way. The wreck site of the Queen Anne’s Revenge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004 and her reference number is 04000148.
The 200-ton vessel, originally named La Concorde de Nantes, was a frigate most likely built in Nantes, France in 1710 by Montaudouin. Nantes was the center of the French slave trade during the early eighteenth century. In the spring, ships loaded with dry goods would leave Nantes and sail to the west coast of Africa. There, the captain and crew would take on a cargo of African slaves to be transported to the New World. The two month long transatlantic voyage was known as the Middle Passage in which 2-4 million captive Africans are believed to have died. The slaves were then sold as laborers in the sugar cane fields of Guadeloupe, Martinique, or Saint Domingue. After debarking their human cargo the ships would take on new freight, usually sugar, and return to France. It was during this journey that the Concorde, sailing as a slave ship, was captured by the pirate Blackbeard, on November 28, 1717, near the island of Martinique.
Blackbeard made the Concorde his flagship, fitting her with up to 40 cannon, crewing her with as many as 300 pirates and renaming her the Queen Anne’s Revenge. The name may come from the War of the Spanish Succession, known in the Americas as Queen Anne’s War, in which Blackbeard had served as a seaman in the Royal Navy, or possibly out of sympathy for Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch. Blackbeard sailed his new prize throughout the Caribbean, attacking British, Dutch, and Portuguese merchant ships along the way.
He formed an alliance of pirates and blockaded the port of Charleston, South Carolina in May 1718. After successfully ransoming its inhabitants for a chest of medical supplies and gold he sailed for North Carolina. Along the way he refused to accept the Governor’s offer of a pardon and ran the Queen Anne’s Revenge aground on a sand bar at the entrance to Beaufort Inlet, NC. He disbanded his flotilla, marooned half his crew and escaped by transferring supplies onto his sloop, Adventure. The marooned crew members were later rescued by Captain Stede Bonnet. Some suggest Blackbeard deliberately grounded the ship as an excuse to disperse the crew – the first case of corporate down-sizing in the New World. Shortly afterward, Blackbeard later accepted a royal pardon for himself and his remaining crew from Governor Charles Eden at Bath, North Carolina. However, he soon returned to piracy and was killed near Ocracoke Island, NC on November 22, 1718 during a fierce battle with troops from Virgina.
Blackbeard aka Edward Thatch
Edward Thatch (also Teach/Thach/Titch//Thatche, c.1680 – November 22, 1718 – numerous primary sources spell his name “Thatch,” or some phonetic deviation thereof. It was spelled in this manner in well over 95 percent of contemporary documents). Thatch was a notorious English pirate who operated around the West Indies and the eastern coast of the American colonies. Although little is known about his early life, he was probably born in Bristol, England. Recent genealogical research indicates his family moved to Jamaica where Edward Thache, Jr. is listed as being a mariner in the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Windsor in 1706. The Windsor is stationed at Port Royal. After the Queen Anne’s War, he may have become a sailor on privateers before settling on the Bahamian island of New Providence, a base for Captain Benjamin Hornigold, whose crew Thatch joined sometime around 1716. Hornigold placed him in command of a sloop he had captured, and the two engaged in numerous acts of piracy. Their numbers were boosted by the addition to their fleet of two more ships, one of which was commanded by Stede Bonnet, but toward the end of 1717 Hornigold retired from piracy, taking two vessels with him. After capturing the Queen Anne’s Revenge he became a renowned pirate. His moniker derived from his thick black beard and fearsome appearance; he was reported to have tied lit fuses under his hat to frighten his enemies. A shrewd and calculating leader, Thatch spurned the use of force, relying instead on his fearsome image to elicit the response he desired from those he robbed. Contrary to the modern-day picture of the traditional tyrannical pirate, he commanded his vessels with the permission of their crews and there is no known account of his ever having harmed or murdered those he held captive. His exploits and his story have become legend.
⚓ Discovery & Archaeological Excavation of the Queen Anne’s Revenge
Intersal Inc., a private research firm, discovered the wreck believed to be Queen Anne’s Revenge on November 21, 1996. It was located by using historical research provided by Intersal’s president, Phil Masters and nautical archaeologist David Moore. In 1998 Intersal signed a memorandum of agreement with the state of North Carolina and handed over the wreck to the state in exchange for media and replica rights and and touring rights. The shipwreck sits in just 24′ of water in the Atlantic Ocean just offshore of Fort Macon State Park, Atlantic Beach, North Carolina. Strong tidal and storm currents wash over the wreck and underwater visibility averages a mere 3-5 feet.
In 2000 and again in 2001, live surface and underwater video of the project was streamed via the internet as a part of the QAR DiveLive educational programs that reached thousands of school children around the world. The DiveLive program was created by Bill Lovin of Marine Grafics & Rick Allen of Nautilus Productions. The live, internet broadcasts allowed students to talk to the scientists, watch live video from the shipwreck site, virtually visit the Queen Anne’s Revenge conservation lab and learn about methods and technologies utilized by underwater archaeologists in real time.
The artifact assemblage supports the claim that the wreck is that of Queen Anne’s Revenge. Current evidence to support this theory is that many of the cannon found were loaded (pirates kept their guns loaded while naval vessels generally did not), there are more cannon than would be expected for a ship of this size (overwhelming fire power), the cannon are of different origins, makes and sizes (prizes from different vessels) and depth markings on the stern post point to the ship have been made according to French foot measurements (not English). To date thirty one guns have been identified and more than 250,000 artifacts have been recovered. Several of those guns have been loaded with langrage, a mixture of miscellaneous metal scrap, used as antipersonnel fire and to disable a ships rigging.
In October 2013 the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Intersal, Inc., and Nautilus Productions LLC signed a Settlement Agreement connected to QAR commercial, replica, and promotional opportunities for the benefit of the Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project and the people of North Carolina.
By the end of the seven week October 2015 project, which concentrated on recovering a single cannon, approximately 60% of the wreck has been fully excavated. Artifacts recovered from the wreck are sent to the QAR Lab at East Carolina University for storage, study and conservation. After conservation selected items are transferred to the North Carolina Maritime Museum in Beaufort, NC. for public display.
⚓ Timeline for Blackbeard, the Queen Anne’s Revenge & the 300th Anniversary of Blackbeard’s Exploits in North Carolina*
Come all you jolly sailors
You all so stout and brave;
Come hearken and I’ll tell you
What happen’d on the wave.
Oh! ’tis of that bloody Blackbeard
I’m going now for to tell;
And as how by gallant Maynard
He soon was sent to hell.
– Benjamin Franklin (attributed)
Oct. 29, 1618: Sir Walter Raleigh, North Carolina’s first pirate, loses his head. On this date Raleigh was found guilty of piracy for capturing a gold-laden Spanish ship in specific contradiction of Royal authority. Following his execution, his head was presented to his faithful widow, a gentlewoman of the queen’s Privy Chamber, Elizabeth (“Bess”) Throckmorton. Raleigh’s namesake is the capitol city of North Carolina.
About 1680: Edward Thatch (Teach/Titch/Thach/Thatche/Tich, c. 1680 – 22 November 1718) is born, possibly near Bristol, England. Recent genealogical research indicates his family moved to Jamaica in the early 1700’s. Edward Thache, Jr. (Blackbeard) is also believed to be the son of wealthy plantation owner Capt. Edward Thache of St. Jago de la Vega or Spanish Town, Jamaica.
1706-08: Thatch possibly served as a privateer during Queen Anne’s War, a struggle between France and Britain for control of North America. Edward Thache is listed as being a skilled merchant, meaning he had owned his own vessel and was trained in navigation and mathematics, aboard the Royal Navy‘s HMS Windsor in 1706. Pay records indicate he joined the vessel on April 12, 1706 and remained onboard until at least August 25, 1707 when he was promoted. The Windsor is stationed at Port Royal, Jamaica.
August 25, 1707: Edward Thache receives a promotion on HMS Windsor and may have remained a crew member through June 30, 1708.
December 13, 1716: Henry Timberlake, the master of the 40 ton brigantine Lamb loaded with a cargo of barrel staves and shingles, reports he was overtaken by two pirate vessels off western Hispaniola. At 8 in the evening the pirate sloop Delight, commanded by Benjamin Hornigold, fired several warning shots and commanded the Lamb to drop sail. Timberlake reports that the pirates absconded with “Three Barrils of Porke, one of Beef, two of peese, three of Markrill five Barrils of onions Several Dozen Caggs of oysters most of his Cloaths and all his Ships Stores Except about Fforty Biskets and a very Small quantity of meat just to bring them in and threw Some of their Staves over board.” He also stated that an hour later “Edward Thach Comander of another Sloop, the name whereof this Deponent knows not mounted with Eight Guns & manned with about ninety men came along Side the Said Brigantine and lent their Canoa with Several hands on board her and plundered her.” This is Blackbeard’s first documented act of piracy.
February 1717: Records of the time indicate the HMS Scarborough, a 32 gun fifth-rate British warship, was in the vicinity of Blackbeard and his pirate crew near Nevis. The deposition of Captain Henry Bostock recounts that the pirates “had met the Man of Warr on this station, but said they had no business with her, but if she had chased them they would have kept their Way.” No battle occurred.
March 13, 1717*: La Concorde de Nantes begins her final run as a French slave trader. Departing from the Loire River port of Nantes, which was the center of the French slave trade in the 1700’s, she is armed with 16 cannons and carries a crew of 75. In 1710 she was owned by the well-known businessman Rene Montaudoin when she sailed as a French privateer during Queen Anne’s War. As a privateer she was heavily armed and carried 26 guns. During that voyage the crew captured several slave vessels along the triangle route to the west coast of Africa and Martinique before lingering in the Caribbean during the spring and summer of 1711. At the end of Queen Anne’s War, Montaudoin added La Concorde to his fleet of slave vessels, where she completed two voyages, returning to France in 1714 and 1716.
March 19, 1717: La Concorde is forced to return to the port of Mindin at the mouth of Loire river. Previously on March 17, stormy weather drove the ship north along the French coast and the crew was forced to shelter in the lee of the island of Groix. The next morning, the howling winds force the crew to cut loose their anchor cable and abandon their 1500-pound anchor. The ship, pushed by strong winds, manages to avoid running hard aground despite hitting sand banks as many as three times. From Groix, La Concorde then sails to the island of Hoëdic, in the Bay of Biscay west of Nantes, to wait out the storm. When the winds finally calm, the ship enters Mindin at the mouth of the Loire to replace their lost anchor and resupply for their journey to the African coast. La Concorde remains in port for nearly two weeks before once again setting sail for Africa.*
April 1, 1717: La Concorde, Blackbeard’s future flagship, leaves France headed for the coast of Guinea after waiting out a storm. La Concorde‘s destination is the port of Judas in Guinea, present-day Ouidah, Benin. Also on this day, Benjamin Hornigold and a pirate named Napping capture a large armed sloop, the Bennet out of Jamaica. The Bennet’s captain, Hickinbottem, surrenders without a fight and hands over a chest of gold coins. Before sailing for Jamaica, Hornigold exchanges his Adventure for the Bennet.*
April 4, 1717: At Bluefield’s Bay in Jamaica, Hornigold and Napping capture the sloop Revenge carrying a load of Spanish gold from a Captain James. In just a week the two pirates had captured two vessels and staggering 400,000 pesos worth £100,000.
May 11, 1717: Blackbeard sets up camp on the island of New Providence and is operating as a pirate in the Caribbean during the spring of 1717. In a report to the British Council of Trade and Plantations, Captain Mathew Musson describes how the Bahamas has become overrun by pirates. He writes, “At Habakoe one of the Bahamas he found Capt. Thomas Walker and others who had left Providence by reason of the rudeness of the pirates and settled there. They advis’d him that five pirates made ye harbor of Providence their place of rendezvous vizt. Horngold, a sloop with 10 guns and about 80 men; Jennings, a sloop with 10 guns and 100 men; Burgiss, a sloop with 8 guns and about 80 men; White, in a small vessell with 30 men and small armes; Thatch, a sloop 6 gunns and about 70 men. All took and destroyd ships of all nations…” This is the first official account referencing the pirate Edward Thach.
June 5, 1717: Captain Matthew Musson writes in the above document that while cast away in the Bahamas in March five pirate crews were using New Providence as a base of operations. This included Edward Thatch with a six gun sloop and a crew of about seventy men and Benjamin Hornigold’s ten gun sloop and crew of about ninety men. Thache’s moniker, “Blackbeard,” enters the official record in this report.
June 7, 1717: The crew of La Concorde set sail from Mesurade, in present-day Monrovia, Liberia. They had stopped two weeks prior to take on fresh stores of food and water. From there they were heading to their final African destination of Judah, the French name for Ouidah in present-day Benin.*
June 27, 1717: La Concorde arrives at the trading port of Juida (or Whydah), present-day Ouidah, Benin. During the next several weeks, the crew trades the goods they brought with them from Europe for 516 slaves and 14 ounces of gold dust. This gold dust would later be found on wreck site of the Queen Anne’s Revenge. It is estimated that more than half of the entire slave trade took place during the 18th century, with the British, Portuguese and French being the main carriers of nine out of ten slaves abducted in Africa. Around 2.2 million Africans died during the Middle Passage where they were packed into tight, unsanitary spaces on ships for months at a time. Measures were taken to stem the onboard mortality rate, such as enforced “dancing” (as exercise) above deck and the practice of force-feeding enslaved persons who tried to starve themselves. The conditions on board also resulted in the spread of fatal diseases and the suicides of the slaves who escaped by jumping overboard. Slave traders would try to fit anywhere from 350 to 600 slaves on one ship. Before the African slave trade was completely banned by participating nations in 1853, 15.3 million enslaved people had been transported to the Americas.*
July 1717: Pirates Benjamin Hornigold on board his 30 gun sloop Bonnett, and his second in command Edward Thatch on another sloop are sailing in the waters East of Cuba. They seize two merchant ships in quick succession. One sailing for New York from Havana is carrying 120 barrels of flour, a commodity much in demand in the Bahamas. About a week later they capture another sloop from Jamaica headed for New York with a cargo of rum which the pirates liberate from their prey. The pirate crews then sail for Nassau in early August and offload their booty.
September 5, 1717: Having had enough of the scourge of piracy King George I issues a royal decree, the Act of Grace;
“By the King, A PROCLAMATION for the Suppressing of Pyrates
Whereas we have received information, that several Persons, Subjects of Great Britain, have, since the 24th Day of June, in the Year of our Lord, 1715, committed divers Pyracies and Robberies upon the High-Seas, in the West Indies, or adjoyning to our Plantations, which hath and may Occassion great Damage to the Merchants of Great Britain, and others trading unto those Parts; and tho’ we have appointed such a Force as we judge sufficient for suppressing the said Pyrates, yet the more effectually to put an End to the same, we have thought fit, by and with the Advice of our Privy Council, to Issue this our Royal Proclamation; the said Pyrates, shall on, or before, the 5th of September, in the year of our Lord 1718, surrender him or themselves, to one of our Principal Secretaries of State in Great Britain or Ireland, or to any Governor or Deputy Governor of any of our Plantations beyond the Seas; every such Pyratee and Pyrates so surrendering him, or themselves, as aforesaid, shall have our gracious Pardon, of, and for such, his or their Pyracy, or Piracies, by him or them committed, before the fifth of January next ensuing. And we do hereby strictly charge and command all our Admirals, Captains, and other Officers at Sea, and all our Governors and Commanders of any Forts, Castles, or other Places in our Plantations, and all other our Officers Civil and Military, to seize and take such of the Pyrates, who shall refuse or neglect to surrender themselves accordingly.
And we do hereby further declare, that in Case any Person or Persons, on, or after, the 6th day of September, 1718, shall discover or seize, or cause or procure to be discovered or seized, any one or more of the said Pyrates, so refusing or neglecting to surrender themselves as aforesaid, so as they may be brought to Justice, and convicted of the said Offence, such Person or Persons, so making such Discovery or Seizure, or causing or procuring such Discovery or Seizure to be made, shall have and receive as a Reward for the same, viz. for every Commander of any private Ship or Vessel ,the Sum of 100 l. for every Lieutenant, Master, Boatswain, Carpenter and Gunner, the sum of 40 l. for every inferior officer, the Sum of 30. and for every private Man the Sum of 20 l. And if any Person or persons, belong to, and being Part of the Crew, of any Pyrat Ship or Vessel, so as he or they be brought to Justice, and be convicted of the said Offence, such Person or Persons, as a Reward for the same, shall receive for every such Commander, the Sum of 200 l. which said Sums, the Lord Treasurer, or the Commissioners of our Treasury for the time being, are hereby required, and desired to pay accordingly.
Given at our Court, at Hampton-Court, the fifth Day of September 1717, in the fourth Year of our Reign.
God save the King”
September 28, 1717: La Concorde leaves Ouidah on the west coast of Africa with 516 enslaved men, women, and children, and 14 ounces of gold dust. While at port, the crew would have traded the goods they brought from Europe for enslaved peoples, and gathered supplies and prepared the ship for the trans-Atlantic journey. While there are no records of the activities of the crew of La Concorde before this final voyage, preparations often included modifications to the ship itself. Generally, a wall with iron spikes and holes for gunfire was built between the front living quarters of the crew and the rest of the ship to reduce the risk of an uprising. In the lower deck, a second floor at half-height was installed to increase the ship’s capacity for African captives. The hold would be filled with enough food and water for the crew and the Africans for the passage and a galley built on the main deck. The slave ship’s voyage across the Atlantic would take two to three months.*
September 29, 1717: “Gentleman Pirate” Stede Bonnet, who has traded plantation life for a pirate ship, transfers command of his sloop, the Revenge, to Blackbeard. The Revenge is crewed by about 150 men and armed with 12 guns. Bonnet, recovering from serious wounds he and 30-40 of his crew received during an encounter with a Spanish man of war, sees the move as temporary. Reports of the time cite raids along the North American coast, including the capture of the 40 ton sloop Betty after a short fight near the Capes of Virginia. Bonnet and Blackbeard seize “Certain Pipes of Medera Wine and other Goods and Merchandizes” and then sink the Betty in retaliation for resisting the pirates. It is during this encounter that Blackbeard first adopts the lit fuses in his hair and a “three brace of pistols, hanging in holsters like bandoliers.”
October 12, 1717: Blackbeard, onboard the Revenge with a crew of 150 men and twelve guns, captures a Captain Codd and his vessel off the Delaware capes. The Revenge later captured and looted the Spofford and Sea Nymph, which were leaving Philadelphia.
October 22, 1717: Blackbeard and his pirate crew on the Revenge plunder the sloops Robert of Philadelphia and Good Intent of Dublin and empty their cargo holds.
November 17, 1717: The French slaver La Concorde encounters Blackbeard off the coast of Saint Vincent. During the voyage sixty-one slaves and sixteen crewmen expire. Blackbeard and his pirates, aboard two sloops, one with 120 men and twelve cannon, and the other with thirty men and eight cannon, capture the frigate after firing “two volleys of cannons and musketry.” The pirates leave the Frenchmen the smaller of Thach’s two sloops. Thach forces the three surgeons on board, carpenters and a cook to remain with his pirate crew. The displaced Frenchmen rename the sloop the Mauvaise Rencontre (Bad Meeting), and make sail for Martinique. Blackbeard offloads La Concorde‘s 455 slaves, crew and cargo in Bequia where the slaves are later recaptured by the returning crew of the Mauvaise Rencontre. Thache then renames La Concorde the Queen Anne’s Revenge and equips her with 40 guns.*
December 5, 1717: Thache overtakes the merchant sloop Margaret off the coast of Anguilla near Crab Island. Her captain, Henry Bostock, and his crew, remain Thatch’s prisoners for about eight hours, and are forced to watch as their sloop is ransacked. Bostock, who had been held aboard the Queen Anne’s Revenge, is returned unharmed to the Margaret and is allowed to leave with his crew. In a deposition Bostock describes “Capt Tach … [as] a tall Spare Man with a very black beard which he wore very long.”
Late 1717-early 1718: Reports cite Blackbeard, and his pirate crew on the Queen Anne’s Revenge, plundering vessels near St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Nevis, Antigua, Puerto Rica and Hispaniola. The captures include the Great Allen, a large merchantman laden with valuable cargo including silver coins, plate and other cargo, taken near the Island of St. Vincent. Documents also indicate Thach spent the winter of 1717-1718 harassing shipping sailing to and from the port of Vera Cruz, Mexico and traversing the Bay of Honduras.
March 28, 1718: One of Blackbeard’s lieutenants, captain Richard and his sloop Revenge, attacks the Protestant Caesar out of Boston captained by William Wyer. The Protestant Caesar is collecting logwood, a 30-40 foot tall, irregular-trunked tree used as a source of a dark bluish-red dye. At 9 pm the crew of 400 ton, 26 gun Protestant Caesar fights a three hour battle with the Revenge in the Bay of Honduras. Around midnight Richard and his pirates break off the fight and sail North to seek reinforcements.
April 5, 1718: At Turneffe Atoll, in the Bay of Honduras, Blackbeard captures the logwood cutting sloop Land of Promise captained by Thomas Newton. Newton and his crew put up no resistance. With Blackbeard is the ten gun, Adventure out of Jamaica and its captain, David Herriot. Also on board is Edward Robinson, the ship’s gunner, who would later be involved in the Battle of Cape Fear River. At this time Blackbeard makes Israel Hands captain of the 80 ton Adventure.
April 9, 1718: Thatch’s flotilla, including the Queen Anne’s Revenge, Adventure and Revenge, returns to Roatan, Honduras to settle a score. Blackbeard loots and burns the Protestant Caesar out of Boston. The now outgunned Captain William Wyer and his crew flee in their longboats into the mangrove jungle and watch as Blackbeard picks their vessel clean before setting it ablaze and sailing for Charleston, South Carolina.
May 22, 1718: With a flotilla made up of the Queen Anne’s Revenge, Adventure, Revenge and a small Spanish sloop captured off Florida, Blackbeard blockades Charles Towne (Charleston), a wealthy South Carolina port. The pirates plunder merchant ships and seize the passengers and crew of the Crowley, a 178 ton ship bound for London carrying barrels of pitch, tar and rice. Some of Charleston’s most prominent citizens are on board the Crowley. After Royal Gov. Robert Johnson meets Thatch’s demand for a chest of medicine and some 4000 pieces of eight valued at £1000, Blackbeard releases some 80 nearly naked hostages and sails up the coast for North Carolina. Medical artifacts from that medicine chest recovered from the wreck site of the Queen Anne Revenge include; a urethral syringe used to treat syphilis, pump clysters to pump fluid into the rectum, a porringer which may have been used in bloodletting treatments, and a cast brass mortar and pestle used in preparing medicine.
Summer 1718: William Howard, associate of Benjamin Hornigold and Blackbeard’s Quartermaster, travels to Virginia, where Gov. Alexander Spotswood jails him for continuing “to Perpetrate his wicked and Pyratical designs at sundry times and places…with…Edwd Tach and other [of] their Confederates and associates.” He is imprisoned several months after previously receiving a royal pardon for his acts of piracy.
June 10, 1718: On or about this day, Blackbeard runs his flagship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge aground at Old Topsail Inlet, now Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina. He attempts to kedge the Queen Anne’s Revenge off the bar using his sloop Adventure but runs her hard aground also. His cohort, Stede Bonnet, leaves for Bath, N.C. to seek a pardon from Gov. Charles Eden and renames his sloop Revenge the Royal James. When Bonnet returns he finds Blackbeard gone, the Queen Anne’s Revenge stripped and former Adventure captain David Herriott marooned on Bogue Banks with Blackbeard’s remaining pirate crew. A contemporary account by Ellis Brand of the Virginian guardship Lyme relates; “On the 10 June or thereabouts a large pyrate Ship of forty Guns with three Sloops in her company came upon the coast of North Carolina ware they endeavour’d to goe in to a harbour call’d Topsail Inlett; the Ship stuck upon the bar att the entrance of the harbour and is lost; as is one of the sloops the other two Sloops being slill in there posession with two hundred and 30 of the pyrats they continue togeather given out they design for Cureico and others of the Islands; when they first came on this coast there number consisted of three hundred and twentie, whites and Negroes, the rest haveing been to surrender, some to the Governor of No Carolina and severall are come into Virginia I am told by a Man that left them, about seventeen days since that the two Sloops crews are fallen out and it was expected they would engage each other if there disputes are not soon reconcil’d Amongst them; I have enquir’d of severall people that are Acquainted with the place they are in att, and they all agree they are not to be come at with a Ship. I shall use my utmost endeavors to informe my self of them and that part of the coast they most cruise upon and if it is possible for me to distroy them notwithstanding they are not soe much superior to me, in number as One hundred and thirtie men. I shall not fail of doing my endeavour.” Pirate David Herriot’s deposition at his later trial reads thus; “Says, That about six Days after they left the Bar of Charles-Town, they arrived at Topsail Inlet in North Carolina, having then under their Command the said Ship Queen Anne’s Revenge, the Sloop commanded by Richards [Revenge], this Deponent’s Sloop [Adventure], commanded by one Capt. Hands, one of the said Pirate Crew, and a small empty Sloop [which will become Blackbeard’s Adventure II] which they found near the Havana. . . . That the next Morning after they had all got safe into Topsail-Inlet, except Thatch, the said Thatch’s Ship Queen Anne’s Revenge run a- ground off of the Bar of Topsail-Inlet, and the said Thatch sent his Quarter-Master to command this Deponent’s Sloop [Adventure] to come to his Assistance; but She run a-ground likewise about Gun-Shot from the said Thatch, before his said Sloop could come to their Assistance, and both the said Thatch’s Ship and this Deponent’s Sloop were wreck’d; and the said Thatch and all the other Sloop’s Companies went on board the Revenge, afterwards called the Royal James, and on board the other Sloop they found empty off the Havanna…”
June 1718: Blackbeard takes his pick of booty and crew, after grounding the Queen Anne’s Revenge and the Adventure, and travels to Bath, NC aboard his Spanish sloop, newly named Adventure [II]. Bath is North Carolina’s oldest town, incorporated in 1705, and the governmental center of the colony. In Bath Thache receives the “gracious pardon” of the Royal Proclamation from Governor Charles Eden. Blackbeard then gives the Governor a share of his plunder. Governor Eden, may have expected the arrival of Blackbeard, having just granted a pardon to pirate Stede Bonnet some time before. Eden knew that compliance with the pirate not only meant that his town would not be attacked, but that a degree of economic gain may also be in the cards. So, when Blackbeard arrived with a questionable ship laden with goods after his departure from Beaufort, Eden chooses to comply with the pirate’s orders. Blackbeard’s past crimes were, for all intents and purposes, forgiven. Finding unaccustomed hospitality from a town in need of an economic boost, Blackbeard decides to take a wife and settle at Plum Point, on the eastern side of Bath Creek. He anchors his sloop at Ocracoke Island, N.C. While in Bath, Blackbeard spends his time in unchecked revelry due to gifts of valuable goods to the local planters.
Late July 1718: Edward Thache sails for St. Thomas on his Spanish sloop, Adventure [II], to seek a commission as a privateer. But the lure of piracy is too great for Blackbeard and he returns to his old ways after stopping first in Philadelphia to sell some of his loot. Soon Thache and his crew sail into the Atlantic after hearing of the warrant for his arrest.
August 11, 1718: Governor William Keith of Pennsylvania issues a warrant for Blackbeard’s arrest based on the belief Thache is trading with merchants in Philadelphia. “Upon an Informacon that one Teach a Noted Pirate, who has Done the Greatest Mischeif of any to this Place, has been Lurking for some Days in & about this Town I have Granted a Provincial warrant for his being apprehended, if possible to be found, & Several other petty Informacons of Late gives me Cause to Suspect that many of the Pirates that have Lately Surrendered themselves & Obtained Certificates from this & the neighbouring Governments, do still keep a Correspondence with their Old Companions abroad. To Prevent the Evil Consequences, whereof I am of Opinion it will be Convenient on the Sixth Day of the Next Month When his Majesties Act of Grace to the Pirates doth Expire, to publish a Proclamation here, Certifying a fresh the Encouragements which his Majesty has been pleased, by his Royal Proclamation, to Offer to Such as Shall Seize & apprehend any of the Pirates So as that they may be brought to Justice, & also the Rewards promised to Such of themselves as Shall bring in Any of their Captains or Leaders with a Clause Certifying also the penalties which the Law does Inflict upon Such persons as Shall pre- sume to Lodge, harbour and Conceall any of these Robbers, whereby they will become Accessory to their Crimes.”
August 12, 1718: On this day in 1718, “Gentleman Pirate” Stede Bonnet’s sloop-of-war flagship the Royal James and two other armed sloops, the Francis and the Fortune, captured a shallop as they sailed from Delaware Bay into the Cape Fear River. The Royal James was Blackbeard’s former sloop and armed with eight cannon. The other two sloops were similarly armed. All together, 46 pirates crewed them. The Royal James was badly in need of careening with hurricane season quickly approaching and Bonnet had chosen the Cape Fear estuary as a reliable shelter against storms. For the next few weeks, Bonnet’s crew made repairs to the Royal James with materials salvaged from the captured shallop. In the coming month, reports of Bonnet’s presence in the region would make their way to South Carolina Governor Robert Johnson, prompting him to issue an order for Militia Colonel William Rhett to command an operation “to destroy the pirate threat.”
August 23, 1718: Blackbeard and his crew on the Adventure [II] spy two French merchant ships, one fully laden and the other in ballast, sailing Northward from the Caribbean island of Martinique. The Rose Emelye, loaded with bags of cocoa and barrels of refined sugar, is in the company of the unarmed La Toison d’Or. Both are returning to France via the Gulf Stream. After a brief and futile fight, and some damage to Blackbeard’s Adventure [II] and his crew, the pirates take both prizes and set course for North Carolina with one of the fully laden ships. The French crewmen are sent on their way in the other merchant vessel.
September 12, 1718: Blackbeard returns to North Carolina with the Rose Emelye, a French ship known as the “Sugar Ship” for it’s cargo of sugar and cocoa, captured in Martinique. Thache claims to have found the ship abandoned at sea and claims the ship as salvage. At a hearing, Tobias Knight, North Carolina’s chief justice and His Majesty’s collector of customs, declares the vessel derelict, thus clearing Thatch. After receiving sixty hogsheads of sugar governor Eden of North Carolina also agrees. Cargo taken from the “Sugar Ship” is then stored at a Bath Town warehouse rented by Tobias Knight, North Carolina’s chief justice and His Majesty’s collector of customs. Blackbeard and his crew spend much of September removing the cargo from the Rose Emelye for storage. Soon after, Thatch claims the ship is leaking and is in danger of sinking and blocking the channel. He then took the vessel upriver and burned her to the waterline where she lies lost to this day. The people of Bath soon decide that the pirate has worn out his welcome and appeal to Alexander Spotswood, Virginia’s royal governor, for help in dispatching Blackbeard.
September 26-27, 1718: Stede Bonnet, 46 pirates, his sloop the Royal James, and two others were attacked by two eight-gun sloops, the Henry with 8 guns and 70 men captained by John Masters and the Sea Nymph, with 8 Guns and 60 men captained by Fayrer Hall, sent by governor Robert Johnson of South Carolina. The Battle of Cape Fear River, which occurred just South of Wilmington, NC at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, lasted nearly six hours and ended when the rising tide allowed the government troops to refloat their vessels while Bonnet was still hard aground. Bonnet and his pirates surrendered and were later taken to Charleston, SC on October 3, 1718.
October 1718: Blackbeard parties at Ocracoke Island, NC with a sizable cohort that includes Charles Vane and “Calico Jack” Rackham. Rackham is most remembered for two things: the design of his Jolly Roger flag, a skull with crossed swords, which contributed to the popularization of the design, and for having two female crew members aboard, Mary Read and his lover Anne Bonny.
October 24, 1718: After the Battle of Cape Fear River in September and the capture of Blackbeard’s former compatriot, David Herriott commander of the sloop Revenge, alias Royal James, by Colonel Rhett, Herriott and boatswain, Ignatius Pell, turn King’s evidence at their trial in Charleston, SC. Gentleman pirate, Stede Bonnet, and the other two escape from prison with local help on this day. A sizeable £700 reward is posted for their re-capture with Herriott being shot and killed a few days later at their camp on the North end of Sullivan Island, SC.
November 10, 1718 – Blackbeard’s accomplice and pirate, Stede Bonnet, is brought to trial before Sir Nicholas Trott, sitting in his capacity as Vice-Admiralty judge in Charleston, SC. Trott had already sat in judgment of Bonnet’s crew and sentenced 29 of the 33 pirates to hang. Bonnet was formally charged with only two acts of piracy, against the Francis and the Fortune, whose commanders were on hand to testify against Bonnet in person. Ignatius Pell (Bonnet’s boatswain) had turned King’s evidence in the trial of Bonnet’s crew and now testified, somewhat reluctantly, against Bonnet himself. Bonnet pleaded not guilty and conducted his own defense without assistance of counsel, cross-examining the witnesses to little avail, and calling a character witness in his favor. Trott rendered a damning summation of the evidence, and the jury delivered a guilty verdict. Two days later, after treating the convicted man to a stern lecture on his violation of Christian duties, Trott sentenced Bonnet to death.
November 17, 1718: Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood provides funds for the hire of two light, fast sloops, which then sail out of the Chesapeake Bay and into the Atlantic, setting a course for Ocracoke Inlet, NC and a confrontation with Blackbeard. Lt. Robert Maynard writes in the log of the HMS Pearl, “Moderate gales & fair weather, this day I received from Captain Gordon, an order to Command 60 men out of his Majesty’s ships Pearle and Lyme, on board two small sloops, in Order to destroy some pyrates, who resided in North Carolina. This day Weighed & Sail’d hence, with ye Sloops under my Command, having on board a month’s Provisions of all Species, with arms, & Ammunition, Suitable for ye Occasion.”
November 21, 1718: Lt. Robert Maynard and sixty of his troops from the HMS Pearl, dispatched by Virginia Gov. Alexander Spotswood, arrive at Ocracoke, NC with a pair of sloops. The Jane and the Ranger spy Blackbeard’s sloop Adventure [II] at anchor. Trouble is brewing…
November 22, 1718: Lt. Robert Maynard’s troops on board the Jane and the Ranger, approach Blackbeard’s sloop Adventure [II] and the pirates open fire. Maynard’s crew, not equipped with artillery, answers with musket fire and then hides below decks in a ruse to lure the pirates aboard the English vessel. Maynard later wrote of Thatch that “at our first Salutation, he drank Damnation to me and my Men, whom he stil’d Cowardly Puppies, saying, He would neither give or take Quarter.” Believing they’ve won the battle, the pirates board the Jane and are overpowered by crewmen bursting from the hold where they are hiding. During the fighting a contemporary account describes the sea around the vessel as being “tinctur’d with Blood.” As Maynard and Blackbeard came face to face the pirate received a pistol shot while swinging his heavy cutlass and snapping Maynard’s sword. Just as Thache was about to press his advantage his throat was slashed by a stout Scot among Maynard’s crew. “Here was an end to that courageous brute, who might have passed in the world for a hero had he been employed in a good cause.” Blackbeard’s head is suspended from the Jane’s bowsprit and the remaining pirates taken prisoner. Maynard later examined Thatch’s body, noting that it had been shot no fewer than five times and cut about twenty. He also found several items of correspondence, including a letter to Thatch from Tobias Knight, the Royal Secretary for North Carolina seeking a meeting between Blackbeard and Governor Charles Eden. The existence of the letter written by Knight to Thatch and the fact that cargo taken from the “Sugar Ship” was stored by Thache in Knight’s warehouse lead to accusations that Knight and Eden were colluding with the pirates. Nothing came of the accusations against either Knight or Governor Eden.
November 24, 1718: Governor Alexander Spotswood, not knowing that Thatch had already been killed, harangued the burgesses at Williamsburg, requests a “speedy and Effectual Measures for breaking up that Knott of Robbers.” What followed was the Act to Encourage the Apprehending and Destroying of Pyrates which offered a £100 reward for the death or capture of Blackbeard.
“Publishing the Rewards Given for Apprehending or Killing Pirates.
WHEREAS, by an Act of Assembly, made-at a Session of Assembly, begun at the Capital in Williamsburg, the eleventh day of November in the fifth year of His Majesty’s Reign, entitled An Act to Encourage the Apprehending and Destroying of Pirates: It is amongst other things enacted, that all and every person or persons, who, from and after the fourteenth day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighteen, and before the fourteenth day of November, which shall be in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Nineteen, shall take any Pirate or Pirates, on the sea or land, or in case of resistance, shall kill any such Pirate or Pirates, between the degrees of thirty four and thirty nine Northern latitude, and within one hundred leagues of the Continent of Virginia, or within the Provinces of Virginia, or North Carolina, upon the conviction, or making due proof of the killing of all, and every such Pirate, and Pirates, before the Governor and Council, shall be entitled to have, and receive out of the public money, in the hands of the, Treasurer of this Colony, the several rewards following that is to say, for Edward Teach, commonly called Captain Teach or Blackbeard, one hundred pounds; for every other commander of a pirate ship, sloop or vessel, forty pounds; for every lieutenant, master or quartermaster, boatswain or carpenter, twenty pounds; for every other inferior officer, fifteen pounds, and for every private man taken aboard such ship, sloop, or vessel, ten pounds; and that for every Pirate which shall be taken by any ship, sloop or vessel, belonging to this colony, or North Carolina, within the time aforesaid, in any place whatsoever, the like rewards shall be, paid according to the quality and condition of such pirates. Wherefore, for the encouragement of all such persons as shall be willing to serve His Majesty and their Country, in so just and honorable undertaking, as the suppressing a sort of people, who may be truly called enemies to mankind: I have thought fit, with the advice and consent of His Majesty’s Council to issue this Proclamation; hereby declaring, the said rewards shall be punctually and justly paid, in current money in Virginia, according to the directions of the said Act. And, I do order and appoint this Proclamation, to be published by the Sheriffs at their respective County houses, and by all Ministers and Readers in the several Churches and Chapels throughout this Colony.
Given at Our Council Chamber at Williamsburg, this 24th day of November, 1718. In the Fifth year of His Majesty’s Reign.
December 10, 1718: While awaiting his execution, pirate Stede Bonnet writes to Governor Johnson, begging abjectly for clemency and promising to have his own arms and legs cut off as assurance that he would never again commit piracy. Charles Johnson wrote that Bonnet’s visibly disintegrating mind moved many Carolinians to pity, particularly the female population, and London papers later reported that the governor delayed his execution seven times. Bonnet was eventually hanged at White Point Garden, in Charleston SC, on this date.
January 3, 1719: Lt. Robert Maynard returns to Hampton River (Kequitan/Kecoughtan), Virginia with Blackbeard’s head hanging from his bowsprit and Thache’s sloop Adventure [II] as his prize. While moored Maynard writes in his log, “Little wind & fair weather, this day I anchored here from North Carolina in the Adventure Sloop Edward Thache formerly Master (a Pyrat) whose head I hung Under the Bowsprete of the Said Sloop in order to present it to ye Colony of Virginia & ye goods and Effects of the said Pyrat I delivered to my Commanders Dispersal.” The notorious pirate had been killed during a ferocious battle near Ocracoke, North Carolina. Cannons roared and townspeople cheered when they saw the horrific trophy sailing up the river toward the King Street docks. According to tradition, the head is placed on a pike in the water, at the site now known as Blackbeard’s Point at the entrance to Hampton Creek (now Hampton River, Virginia).
January 28, 1719: According to the log of HMS Pearl, whose sailors played a critical role in the November sea battle that killed Edward Thach near Ocracoke, N.C., two of the condemned pirates were taken from the ship and hanged on the Hampton waterfront. William Howard, associate of Benjamin Hornigold and Blackbeard’s Quartermaster, had received Virginia Gov. Alexander Spotswood’s “Act of Grace” and was released. In 1759 a William Howard purchased Ocracoke Island for £105. Some believe him to be the same Howard that sailed with Blackbeard.
March 12, 1719: Blackbeard’s pirate associates are tried in Williamsburg, VA. Records indicate that one is acquitted, one is pardoned and the other 14 pirates are hanged. Of the two who escaped the gallows, Samuel Odel proved that he had participated in the bloody fight with Virginia troops out of necessity and was only a guest at a drinking party on Thach’s ship and not a pirate. The other, Israel Hands, was not present at the fight. He claimed that during a drinking session Blackbeard had shot him in the knee, and that he was still covered by the royal pardon. Hands then testified against corrupt North Carolina officials, including Tobias Knight, the Secretary of North Carolina under Governor Charles Eden, with whom Thach had consorted. The bodies of the remaining pirates were left to rot in gibbets every half mile along Williamsburg’s Capitol Landing Road.
August 3, 1721: Three years after the killing of Blackbeard the Pirate, the wives & widows of HMS Pearl and Lyme petition through Captain George Gordon to His Majesty the King for the bounty or “head” money owed to them.
November 21, 1996: Intersal Inc., a private research firm working under permit from the state of North Carolina, discovers the wreck believed to be the Queen Anne’s Revenge (QAR). The shipwreck was discovered by Intersal staff using historical research provided by Intersal’s president, Phil Masters and maritime archaeologist David Moore. The initial recovery included a bronze bell inscribed with the date of 1705, the brass barrel of a blunderbuss (circa 1690-1710), a lead cannon apron, a lead sounding weight, and two iron cannonballs. Subsequent excavations have resulted in the recovery of 23 cannon and thousands of artifacts, all supporting the conclusion that the wreck is the Queen Anne’s Revenge. The shipwreck lies in 28 feet (8.5m) of water about one mile (1.6 km) offshore of Fort Macon State Park.
September 1, 1998: Intersal, Inc., discover of the Queen Anne’s Revenge, signs a memorandum of agreement with the state of North Carolina and hands over the wreck to the state in exchange for media and replica rights as well as touring rights.
June 10, 2018: Blackbeard’s 300th tricentennial anniversary of the Queen Anne’s Revenge and Adventure grounding near Beaufort Inlet, NC.
November 22, 2018: Blackbeard’s 300th tricentennial anniversary of his demise during a fierce battle at Ocracoke, NC.
*The dates on this timeline use the English dates or Julian calendar (old style). However, the more widely used calendar, which is still in use today, is the Gregorian (new style) calendar. In the early 18th century the Julian calendar differed from the Gregorian calendar by 11 days; i.e. 17 November 1717 (Julian) corresponds to 28 November 1717 (Gregorian).
Intersal, Inc. – Discoverer of Queen Anne’s Revenge.
Visit the Queen Anne’s Revenge shipwreck project of the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources (NC DNCR) to learn more.
Nautilus Productions – Pirate Directory
Modern Day Piracy on the Queen Anne’s Revenge
On December 1, 2015, Nautilus Productions, which has spent almost two decades documenting the retrieval of Blackbeard’s pirate flagship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge, filed a Federal lawsuit against Gov. Pat McCrory, the State of North Carolina, the Friends of Queen Anne’s Revenge nonprofit, and others, in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina over Blackbeard’s Law and copyright infringement. Another lawsuit against North Carolina, filed by Intersal, Inc. which found the Queen Anne’s Revenge, is pending in state business court.
Learn More – National Geographic
A sailor’s song believed to be penned by Benjamin Franklin, at age 13 (1719), upon learning of Blackbeard’s death.
Will you hear of a bloody Battle, Lately fought upon the Seas, It will make your Ears to rattle, And your Admiration cease; Have you heard of Teach the Rover, And his Knavery on the Main; How of Gold he was a Lover, How he lov’d all ill got Gain.
When the Act of Grace appeared, Captain Teach with all his Men, Unto Carolina steered, Where they kindly us’d him then; There he marry’d to a Lady, And gave her five hundred Pound, But to her he prov’d unsteady, For he soon march’d of[f] the Ground.
And returned, as I tell you, To his Robbery as before, Burning, sinking Ships of value, Filling them with Purple Gore; When he was at Carolina, There the Governor did send, To the Governor of Virginia, That he might assistance lend.
Then the Man of War’s Commander, ` Two small Sloops he fitted out, Fifty Men he put on board, Sir, Who resolv’d to stand it out: The Lieutenant he commanded both the Sloops, and you shall hear, How before he landed, He suppress’d them without Fear.
Valiant Maynard as he sailed, Soon the Pirate did espy, With his Trumpet he then hailed, And to him they did reply: Captain Teach is our Commander, Maynard said, he is the Man, Whom I am resolv’d to hang Sir, Let him do the best he can.
Teach reply’d unto Maynard, You no Quarters here shall see, But be hang’d on the Main-yard, You and all your Company; Maynard said, I none desire, Of such Knaves as thee and thine, None I’ll give, Teach then replyed, My Boys, give me a Glass of Wine.
He took the Glass, and drank Damnation, Unto Maynard and his Crew; To himself and Generation, Then the Glass away he threw; Brave Maynard was resolv’d to have him, Tho’ he’d Cannons nine or ten: Teach a broadside quickly gave him, Killing sixteen valiant Men.
Maynard boarded him, and to it They fell with Sword and Pistol too; They had Courage, and did show it, Killing the Pirate’s Crew. Teach and Maynard on the Quarter, Fought it out most manfully, Maynard’s Sword did cut him shorter, Losing his Head, he there did die.
Every Sailor fought while he Sir, Power had to weild [sic] the Sword, Not a Coward could you see Sir, Fear was driven from aboard: Wounded Men on both Sides fell Sir, ‘Twas a doleful Sight to see, Nothing could their Courage quell Sir, O, they fought courageously.
When the bloody Fight was over, We’re inform’d by a Letter writ, Teach’s Head was made a Cover, To the Jack Staff of the Ship: Thus they sailed to Virginia, And when they the Story told, How they kill’d the Pirates many, They’d Applause from young and old.
David D. Moore, Captain Edward Thatch: A Brief Analysis of the Primary Source Documents Concerning the Notorious Blackbeard, 2018
David D. Moore, A General History of Blackbeard the Pirate, the Queen Anne’s Revenge and the Adventure, 1997
Baylus Brooks, Blackbeard Reconsidered – Mist’s Piracy, Thache’s Genealogy, 2015
Baylus Brooks, Henry Timberlake’s Deposition: Edward Thache and Benjamin Hornigold, Brief Partners in Crime!, 2015
Baylus Brooks, Quest for Blackbeard – The True Story of Edward Thache and His World, 2016
Baylus Brooks, Guilty or Innocent?: Depositions of Pirates David Herriot and Ignatius Pell – October 1718, 2015
David Fictum, The Firsts of Blackbeard: Exploring Edward Thatch’s Early Days as a Pirate, 2015
Colin Woodard, The Republic of Pirates, 2007
Colonial Records: Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, 1735-6
Daniel Defoe, A General History of the Pyrates, 1724
Charles Johnson, A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, 1724
Colin Woodard, The Last Days of Blackbeard, 2014
Henry Timberlake Deposition, 1716
Capt. Ellis Brand to Admiralty, 1718
George Humphrey Yetter, When Blackbeard Scourged The Seas, Colonial Williamsburg Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn 1992), pp. 22-28
Philip Howard, Living amidst 250 years of Howard family history, Outerbank Magazine, June 7, 2016
Martin Salmon, Blackbeard 300, Royal Museums Greenwich Blog, November 16, 2018
Wikipedia & NCDNCR
friendsofqar.org friendsofqar Friends of Queen Anne’s Revenge friends of qar qarfound NCDNCR
qaronline.org Blackbeard’s Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project